The Manchester City striker went up in an aerial challenge and caught an elbow from Argentina center back Nicolas Otamendi.
He was initially given the all-clear after precautionary tests but the CBF later said that, after a more detailed examination, a fracture was diagnosed in the bone that protects his left eye.
He will continue to be assessed in Australia before flying to Brazil for rehabilitation.
Brazil coach Tite was concerned his star man may have suffered a facial injury, but he should be in contention for the Samba Boys' friendly clash, in Melbourne, against Australia on Tuesday.
It's going to be interesting when the City players return for pre-season, as they may have to do so without the talents of the Brazilian.
"Jesus is fine", Edu told Australian Associated Press.
Earlier in the second half, Jesus comically hit the post as an open goal beckoned, but was otherwise a threat throughout the high-quality friendly.