Entering the final round, DeChambeau, 23, was four shots behind Rodgers, and that deficit had grown by the time he reached the 10th hole at even par for the day.
And while both have had some professional success, neither had had a breakthrough victory, and on the back nine of the John Deere Classic at TPC Deere Run on Sunday, it came down to the two of them, and DeChambeau prevailed.
After clinching the title and a trip to Southport, a tearful DeChambeau said: "I don't even know what it means right now".
Stallings shot a 30 on the back nine and eagled the par-5 17th hole with a 22-foot putt.
"He's a great competitor, and I was kind of shocked he bogeyed 17", DeChambeau said about Rodgers.
"I think that's the true meaning behind what I try and do", he said. Wesley Bryan and Rick Lamb each finished at 16 under and tied for third.
On Friday, though, he caught fire after a slow start, nailing a 50-foot chip-in for birdie at his 12th and a 50-foot birdie putt four holes later.
After being cut from the U.S. Open earlier this year, he will have the opportunity to tee off at the Open Championship for the first time in his career next weekend.
"I can't believe this happened", said DeChambeau, overcome with emotion afterward.
Soak this one in, Bryson. The former trick shot artist continues to impress during his strong rookie season, already having picked up his first victory at the RBC Heritage and finishing in the top 10 four times.
His first birdie arrived at the eighth and be began a superb back nine with back-to-back birdies, with two more following at the 13th and 14th.
Patrick Rodgers took a small step towards living up to the expectations heaped upon him when he tied a Tiger Woods college record by taking a two-stroke halfway lead at the John Deere Classic in IL on Friday.
The 50-year-old Stricker went 8-under par through 14 holes to jump all the way up from 34th place.
"I was able to get two more rounds under my belt and work on a few things".
"When he gets in that position, that's when he is the best", DeChambeau's caddie, Tim Tucker, said.
Johnson, a Cedar Rapids, Iowa, native who won at TPC Deere Run in 2012 and notched six top-three finishes in his last eight appearances, again drew the biggest galleries.
The American then rolled in his birdie putt for a final round 65 and then waited for his compatriot to finish, with a playoff on the cards if Rodgers could match his birdie and total of 18-under-par.