During Sunday night's Golden Globes, the most powerful women in Hollywood donned black in support of Time's Up, a new initiative created to address pay disparity, discrimination and harassment in the industry in the wake of the #MeToo movement. Gender parity is the most imbalanced when it comes to cinematographers - of whom women have teetered between 2 and 5 percent over the past two decades (see chart below).
Women made up just 18% of all the directors, writers, producers, executive producers, editors and cinematographers who worked on the top 250 USA films released previous year, according to Lauzen's study for 2017 titled "The Celluloid Ceiling: Behind-the Scenes Employment of Women".
The "Celluloid Ceiling" study, which is released annually by San Diego State University's Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film, also found that only 1 percent of the year's top films employed 10 or more women - whereas 70 percent employed 10 or more men.
Women fared best as producers (25%), followed by executive producers (19%) and editors (16%).
When looking at the percentage of individuals employed behind the scenes of 2017's top films - whether as directors, executive producers, cinematographers, writers or editors - women only made up 18%, increasing by just one point since 2016.
In many ways, 2017 was the year of the woman in the film industry.
Studios often argue that women are too inexperienced to handle big-budget films and yet hand massive franchises to male filmmakers with only one movie under their belt, like Gareth Edwards (Monsters to Godzilla), Josh Trank (Chronicle to Fantastic Four) and Colin Trevorrow (Safety Not Guaranteed to Jurassic World). The percentage of female cinematographers has stayed exactly the same. Slightly less than 30 percent of films had no or just one woman in the aforementioned roles. The study also analyzes women's involvement in the top 500 films, which this year showed that woman directors employ higher percentages of women in other behind-the-scenes roles.
"2016 was actually a very poor year for women's representation as directors", Lauzen said in an interview, "So I'm not surprised to see a bit of a rebound in 2017".
The Celluloid Ceiling is the longest-running and most comprehensive study of women's behind-the-scenes employment in film available. But that number was still less than the 8 percent in 2008.
Take a look at which films directed by women are on this list, unadjusted for inflation.