Corbyn later wrote to May seeking assurance that there would be no further bombing raids and urged the government to negotiate a pause in the Syrian civil war.
"This is the first time as prime minister that I have had to take the decision to commit our armed forces in combat - and it is not a decision I have taken lightly", she said.
The former missile base was assessed to have been used by the Syrian regime to "keep chemical weapon precursors stockpiled in breach of Syria's obligations under the Chemical Weapons Convention", the MoD said in a statement.
Other opposition leaders joined in the criticism.
"It is about a limited and targeted strike that does not further escalate tensions in the region and that does everything possible to prevent civilian casualties".
Over 100 missiles were fired on the morning of Saturday, April 14, targeting what representatives of coalition forces called chemical weapons sites in retaliation for an earlier poison gas attack.
"There is a wider question on the future political solution for Syria and that is a matter that we will continue to pursue in diplomatic and political channels with our worldwide partners and allies", May said. The alleged use of chemical weapons, if true, is deplorable.
He also did not rule out future military action.
The United States is preparing to impose sanctions on Russian Federation for "covering up" the actions of the Assad regime.
Vince Cable, leader of the Liberal Democrats, said: "Riding the coattails of an erratic U.S. president is no substitute for a mandate from the House of Commons".
"It shows a weak government putting short-term political expediency before democracy and in so doing further diminishing the standing of Britain in the world", Cable said.
However, there was some support for May.
Peter Felstead, editor of Jane's Defence Weekly, said he did not think May would face a "serious backlash", as the strikes ultimately were politically and operationally "the right thing to do".
"If the West had acted against Assad's chemical weapons attacks in 2013, we might not have had to embark on military action now".