The United States, France, and Britain on Saturday launched strikes against Bashar al-Assad's government, a week after an alleged chemical attack in the Syrian city of Douma, just east of the capital Damascus.
Speaking to Rouhani by telephone the day after US-led strikes on suspected chemical weapons facilities, Putin said "if such actions, carried out in violation of the United Nations Charter, are repeated, that would inevitably provoke chaos in global relations", according to a statement from the Kremlin.
"Vladimir Putin, in particular, stressed that if such actions committed in violation of the U.N. Charter continue, then it will inevitably lead to chaos in worldwide relations", a Kremlin statement said.
US President Donald Trump ordered the air attacks late on Friday "on targets associated with chemical weapons capabilities". The Syrian government and its ally Russian Federation have denied involvement in any such attack.
"We are carrying out an assessment of the material damages", the official added.
Russian and Iranian military help over the past three years has allowed Assad to crush the rebel threat to topple him.
No military measures were immediately announced, but in a clear warning to the US and its allies, Col. Gen. Sergei Rudskoi of the Russian military's General Staff said Moscow could boost Syria's Soviet-era air defense assets with batteries of state-of-the-art S-300 missiles.
The attacks struck at the heart of Syria's chemical weapons programme, Washington said, in retaliation for a suspected poison gas attack a week ago.
"The American (military) knows well that going towards a wide confrontation and a big operation against the regime and the army and the allied forces in Syria could not end, and any such confrontation would inflame the entire region", Nasrallah said.
Mr Rouhani reportedly told Mr Assad that Iran would stand by Syria, "expressing his confidence that this aggression would not weaken the determination of the Syrian people in its war against terrorism". The mechanism would look at cases where the OPCW fact-finding mission has established chemical weapons were used or likely used.
That resolution was voted down, earning "yes" votes only from Russia, China and Bolivia. Equities and bonds are unlikely to suffer big losses unless the West strikes again or Russian Federation retaliates.