An worldwide team of researchers found that in 2015 the use of tobacco and alcohol was the cause of more diseases and disability and premature death than the use of other substances causing addiction.
Central, Eastern and Western Europe have the highest alcohol consumption per person, and the highest rates of heavy consumption among drinkers (50.5 percent, 48 percent, and just over 42 percent, respectively), according to the report. Disability-adjusted life-years is a measurement of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill health, disability or early death.
This photo provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare shows a pictorial warning for tobacco packs on tooth discoloration, one of the side effects of smoking.
Those same areas also have the highest rates of tobacco smoking - Eastern Europe 24.2 percent, Central Europe 23.7 percent, and Western Europe nearly 21 percent.
A sample of plain packages used in the United Kingdom
Global estimates suggest that almost one in seven adults (15.2 per cent) smoke tobacco and one in five adults report at least one occasion of heavy alcohol use in the past month. Fewer than one in twenty people were estimated to use cannabis in the past year, and much lower estimates were observed for amphetamines, opioids and cocaine. Hotspots included the United States (U.S.), Canada, and Australasia. There was no government data on the smoking rate in 2015.
In contrast, use of illicit drugs was far less common.
But stop-smoking assistance is limited at behavioral health centers, said Corinne Graffunder, director of CDC's Office on Smoking and Health.
"Too many smokers lack access to proven interventions that could ultimately help them quit smoking", she added. And about one-third of addiction treatment centers were smoke-free.