Pompeo is now on a Mideast tour, bringing the Trump administration's anti-Iran message to the region.
Pompeo kicked off the Gulf portion of his tour after a stop in Cairo, where he delivered a scathing rebuke of former president Barack Obama's Middle East policies that Obama had outlined in a 2009 address to the Arab and broader Muslim world.
The Iranian Foreign Ministry summoned Sunday Poland's charge d'affaires to lodge Tehran's protest over an upcoming "anti-Iran" global summit on the Middle East.
An Iranian foreign ministry official told Poland's Chargé d'Affaires in Tehran, Wojciech Unoltin, that Iran saw the meeting as a "hostile act against Iran" and warned that Tehran could reciprocate, the official IRNA newsagency reported.
Pompeo said Friday that the U.S. was organizing an worldwide summit in Poland focusing on Iran's Middle Eastern influence.
Iranian authorities summoned Poland's top envoy to Tehran on Sunday to express their outrage at the news that Warsaw would host a conference on Middle East policy that they believe is part of a USA push to promote its anti-Iran agenda.
Poland's Foreign Ministry in Warsaw could not immediately be reached for comment on Sunday morning.
Polish Foreign Minister Jacek Czaputowicz said on Saturday that he hoped the conference would be an important tool for worldwide dialogue between the European Union and USA to find common ground in their positions towards Iran.
Speaking in Qatar on Sunday, Pompeo said the aims of the summit would include changing the "behaviour" of Iran, which Washington accuses of destabilising the region and supporting terrorism.
Zarif was referring to Iran hosting of more than 100,000 Polish refugees during the Second World War.
"Reminder to host/participants of anti-Iran conference: those who attended last U.S. anti-Iran show are dead, disgraced or marginalized". Scores stayed on after the war, choosing to reside in Iran.
On Friday Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif criticised Poland for hosting the meeting and wrote on Twitter: "Polish Govt can't wash the shame: while Iran saved Poles in WWII, it now hosts desperate anti-Iran circus".
Tehran and Warsaw have had good relations.
Relations between Tehran and Washington are highly fraught following the decision in May by President Donald Trump to pull the US out of a 2015 nuclear deal between Iran and six major powers and to reimpose sanctions.
A State Department spokesman acknowledged that Poland, like other European nations, supports the worldwide accord from which Mr Trump exited previous year on ending the Iranian nuclear program.